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A brief history of the kingdom of Majapahit

A brief history of the kingdom of Majapahit. Majapahit kingdom was centered in East Java, Indonesia, which stood about in 1293 to 1500 AD The empire reached its peak a highway empire that controlled large areas in the archipelago during the reign of Hayam Wuruk, who reigned from 1350 to 1389.

The kingdom of Majapahit Hindu-Buddhist kingdom that controls the final archipelago and is considered as one of the greatest country in the history of Indonesia. Its power lies in Java, Sumatra, the Malay Peninsula, Kalimantan, Indonesia to the east, although the territory is disputed.

Founding of Majapahit
Prior to the work of Majapahit, Singhasari have been first to be based Royal rulers in Java. It is a concern of Kublai Khan, the ruler of the Yuan Dynasty in China. He sent a messenger named Meng Chi to Singhasari demanding tribute. Kertanagara, the last ruler of the kingdom Singhasari refused to pay tribute and embarrass the messenger by destroying his face and cut off his ear. Kublai Khan angry and then dispatched a large expedition to Java in 1293.

MajapahitKetika kingdom's history, Jayakatwang, duke of Kediri, was ousted and killed Kertanegara. On the advice of Aria Wiraraja, Jayakatwang pardoned the Raden Wijaya, son Kertanegara, who came to surrender. Then, Wiraraja sent messengers to Daha, who brought the letter contains a statement, Raden Wijaya give up and want to serve Jayakatwang. The answer to the above letter was greeted with pleasure. Raden Wijaya then given forest Pull. He opened the forest and build a new village. The village was named Majapahit, whose name is taken from maja fruit, and taste "bitter" of the fruit. When the Mongols arrived, Wijaya allied with the Mongols to fight Jayakatwang. After successfully dropping Jayakatwang, Raden Wijaya turned against their allies, forcing Mongolnya pull its troops back home frantically because they are in a foreign country. When it is also their last chance to catch the monsoon winds in order to go home, or they will have to wait another six months in a foreign island.

The exact date is used as the date of birth of the Majapahit kingdom is the day of the coronation as king Raden Wijaya, the 15th month of Kartika in 1215 saka which coincides with the date of 10 November 1293. He was named the official name Kertarajasa Jayawardhana. Kingdom is facing the problem. Some people trusted Kertarajasa, including Ranggalawe, Sora, and Nambi rebelled against him, although the rebellion was not successful. Ranggalawe uprising was supported by Panji Mahajaya, Arya Sidi Ra, Ra Jaran Waha, Latitude Ra, Ra Tosan, Wren Ra, and Ra Tati. All of this is mentioned in Pararaton. Slamet Muljana Mahapatih Halayudha suspect that the one who did all the conspiracy to overthrow the king trusted, so that he can attain the highest position in the government. But after the death of the last rebel (Kuti), Halayudha arrested and jailed, and then sentenced to death. Wijaya died in 1309.

Wijaya's son and successor was Jayanegara. Pararaton GEMET called Kala, which means "weak villain". Roughly at a time during Jayanegara government, an Italian priest, Odorico da Pordenone visited Majapahit kingdom in Java. In the year 1328, killed by his doctors Jayanegara, Tanca. His stepmother is Gayatri Rajapatni supposed to replace, but Rajapatni chose to resign from the palace and became nuns. Rajapatni pointed Tribhuwana Wijayatunggadewi daughter to become queen of Majapahit. In 1336, Gajah Mada Tribhuwana appointed as Mahapatih, at the time of his inauguration Gajah Mada Palapa Oath that demonstrate utter his plan to expand Majapahit power and build an empire. During power Tribhuwana, Majapahit empire evolved into a larger and well-known in the archipelago. Tribhuwana ruled Majapahit until the death of his mother in 1350. He continued by his son, Hayam Wuruk.

The glory of Majapahit
Hayam Wuruk, also called Rajasanagara, Majapahit ruled from 1350 until 1389. In his time the Majapahit reached its peak with the help of mahapatihnya, namely Gajah Mada. Under the command of Gajah Mada (1313-1364), Majapahit controlled more territory.

According Kakawin Nagarakretagama Canto XIII-XV, Majapahit territory covers Sumatra, the Malay peninsula, Borneo, Sulawesi, Nusa Tenggara islands, Maluku, Papua, Tumasik (Singapore) and most of the Philippine archipelago. This source shows the widest limits once the heyday of the Raj Majapahit.

Nevertheless, natural and economic constraints suggest that the areas of power does not appear to be under centralized rule Majapahit, but are connected to each other by trade who may be monopolized by the king. Majapahit also has relationships with Champa, Cambodia, Siam, southern Burma, and Vietnam, and even sent an ambassador-envoys to China.

In addition to launching attacks and military expeditions, Majapahit also established the path of diplomacy and alliances. Possibilities for political reasons encouraged, Hayam Wuruk eager to marry Citraresmi (Pitaloka), daughter of the Kingdom of Sunda as queen. Sunda party considers this proposal as an alliance agreement. In the 1357 group Sunda king and his family and his bodyguard went to deliver Majapahit princess to marry Hayam Wuruk. However Gajah Mada saw this as an opportunity to force the kingdom of Sunda submission under Majapahit. The fight between the Sunda royal family Majapahit troops on the ground Bubat inevitable. Despite bravely put up resistance, Sunda royal family were overwhelmed and eventually defeated. Almost the entire royal family entourage can Sunda cruelly destroyed. Tradition says that the princess is disappointed, with shattered hearts to "starch-defense", committed suicide to defend the honor of his country. Bubat Pasunda story became a major theme in the Song of Sundanese manuscript compiled in the days later in Bali and also Carita Parahiyangan manuscript. This story is alluded to in Pararaton but is not mentioned in Nagarakretagama.

Kakawin Nagarakretagama compiled in 1365 mentions the valuable cultural palace, elegant, and sophisticated, with a sense of art and literature that smooth and high, as well as a complex system of religious rituals. The poet describes Majapahit as the center of a giant mandala stretching from Sumatra to Papua, and Maluku include the Malay Peninsula. Local tradition in many parts of the archipelago are still recorded the legends about the power of Majapahit. Direct administration by the Majapahit kingdom covers only the area of ​​East Java and Bali, outside the area it just kind of autonomy rule, periodic payment of tribute and recognition of their sovereignty over Majapahit. However, any rebellion or a challenge for the local Majapahit ketuanan it can provoke strong reactions.
In 1377, a few years after Gajah Mada's death, Majapahit sea attack to quell the rebellion in Palembang.

Although the Majapahit rulers to expand its power in the various islands and sometimes attack the neighboring kingdom of Majapahit main concern seems is getting the biggest portion and controlling trade in the archipelago. At this time the Muslim traders and Muslim missionaries began to enter the region.

The collapse of the Majapahit
After reaching its peak in the 14th century, and the glory of Majapahit power gradually weakened show. After the death of Hayam Wuruk in 1389, Majapahit entered a period of decline due to a struggle throne. Hayam Wuruk heir is Kusumawardhani crown princess, who married his own cousin, the prince Wikramawardhana. Hayam Wuruk also has a son of his mistress Wirabhumi who also claim their right to the throne. The civil war called War Paregreg expected to occur in 1405-1406, between Wirabhumi against Wikramawardhana. This war eventually won Wikramawardhana, semetara Wirabhumi captured and then beheaded. This civil war seems to weaken the control of Majapahit conquered regions across.

In the period Wikramawardhana government, a series of marine expedition led by Ming dynasty admiral Zheng He, a Chinese Muslim general, arrived in Java several times between the period of 1405 until 1433. Since the year 1430 Cheng Ho's expedition has created a Chinese Muslim and Arab communities in a port city north coast of Java, such as in Semarang, Demak, Tuban, and Ampel; them Islam began to have a foothold on the northern coast of Java.

Wikramawardhana ruled until 1426, and continued by his daughter, Queen Suhita, which ruled in 1426 until 1447. She is the second daughter of a concubine Wikramawardhana second daughter also Wirabhumi. At 1447, and died Suhita continued rule by Kertawijaya, her brother. He ruled until 1451. After Kertawijaya died, Bhre Pamotan became king and ruled with a degree in Kahuripan Rajasawardhana. He died in 1453 AD. Occurs at intervals of three years without the king's succession crisis. Girisawardhana, Kertawijaya son, ascended the throne in 1456. He later died in 1466 and was replaced by Singhawikramawardhana. At the 1468 revolt against Singhawikramawardhana Kertabhumi prince and declared himself king of Majapahit.

When Majapahit was founded, Muslim traders and missionaries have started entering the archipelago. At the end of the 14th century and early 15th century, the Majapahit influence throughout the country began to decrease. At the same time, a new trading empire based on Islam, the Sultanate of Malacca, began to appear in the western part of the archipelago. In the western part of the crumbling empire, Majapahit no longer stem the rise of power of the Sultanate of Malacca in the mid 15th century and began to control the Strait of Malacca to Sumatra expand his power. While some Majapahit Empire and conquered the region in other regions in the archipelago, one by one start to break away from the power of Majapahit.

Singhawikramawardhana moved the royal capital further inland in Daha (the former capital of Kediri kingdom) and continued to rule there until Ranawijaya succeeded by his son in 1474. At 1478 Ranawijaya beat Kertabhumi and reunite into a single kingdom of Majapahit. Ranawijaya ruled during the period 1474 to 1519 with a degree Girindrawardhana. Despite this strength has been weakened by the conflict Majapahit dynasty and began to rise to power of Islamic kingdoms in the north coast of Java.

Raj Majapahit expiration time ranges during the period 1478 (1400 saka, considered the turn of the century when common changes of dynasty and the end of a government) until 1527.

In Javanese tradition there is a kronogram or candrasengkala which reads vanished ilang kretaning earth. Sengkala This is supposedly the end of the year Majapahit and should be read as 0041, ie the year 1400 Saka or 1478 AD. Sengkala meaning is "there goes the prosperity vanished earth". However, the truth is illustrated by the death Bhre candrasengkala Kertabumi, 11th king of Majapahit, by Girindrawardhana.

According Jiyu and Petak inscription, Ranawijaya admitted that he had been defeated Kertabhumi and moved the capital to Daha (Kediri). This incident sparked a war between the Sultanate of Demak Daha, since Demak ruler was descended Kertabhumi. This battle was won by Demak in 1527. A large number of palace servants, artists, clergy, and members of the royal family fled to the island of Bali. This displacement is most likely to avoid retaliation and punishment of Demak due to their support for the fight Ranawijaya Kertabhumi.

With the fall of Daha crushed by Demak in 1527, the power of the Islamic empire in the early 16th century eventually beat the rest of the kingdom of Majapahit. Demak under the reign of Raden (later to become Sultan) Patah (Fatah), recognized as the successor to the kingdom of Majapahit. According to the Babad Tanah Jawi and Demak tradition, Raden Patah legitimacy because he was the son of Majapahit king Brawijaya V with a Chinese woman.

Historical records of Chinese, Portuguese (Tome Pires), and Italy (Pigafetta) indicates that there has been a transfer of power from the hands of the Hindu Majapahit into the hands of the Duke of Unus, the ruler of the Sultanate of Demak, between 1518 and 1521 AD

Demak ensure its position as a regional power, and became the first Islamic empire that stood in Java. It was after the collapse of Majapahit, the rest of the surviving Hindu kingdom in Java last was only royal residence in the east end, and the Kingdom of Sunda Padjadjaran in the capital in the west. Gradually Islam started to spread over the mountains to the resignation of the Hindu society and to Bali. Some pockets of Hindu Tengger people still survive in the mountains of Tengger, Bromo and Semeru area.

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